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中英对照:开放获论文在发展中国家使用更多

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  原题:Open access papers used more in developing world

  [RIO DE JANEIRO] Making articles freely available online can widen the participation of developing world scientists in global science, according to a new study.

  [里约热内卢]一项新的研究发现,让论文免费在网上公开可以扩大发展中国家科学家在全球科学中的参与程度。

  Researchers at the University of Chicago in the United States measured the extent to which making papers available on an open access basis affected how many times those papers were cited, and by whom.

  来自美国芝加哥大学的科学家测量了让论文开放获取可以在多大程度上影响论文的引用次数和引用者。

  Using Thompson Scientific's Citation Indexes and Fulltext Sources Online, they surveyed 26 million articles from more than 8,000 journals, their associated citations from 1945–2005 and online availability from 1998–2005.

  利用汤姆森科学引文索引以及全文资源在线,他们调查了来自8000多份刊物的2600万篇论文、 1945-2005年期间它们的被引用数量,以及1998-2005年间在网上是否可以获取这些论文。

  They compared the number of citations scientific papers received when available only in print with the number received by the same articles once they became freely available online. The researchers found that online availability increased citations of recently published articles by around eight per cent.

  他们比较了仅以印刷版方式发行的科学论文的被引用数量以及同一篇论文免费在网上公布之后的被引用数量。这组科学家发现在网上公开论文可以增加近来出版的论文的被引用数量约8%。

  But they also found variation in the rates of citations from different countries, based on a country's per capita gross national income — with the impact of open access more than twice as strong in developing countries than in developed countries.

  但是根据国家的人均国民收入,他们也发现不同国家引用数量的差异——开放获取在发展中国家的影响力是在发达国家的2倍以上。

  In England and Germany, for example, open access increased citations of articles by around five per cent, while in India the increase was almost 25 per cent and in Brazil it was close to 30 per cent.

  例如,在英国和德国,开放获取增加了论文的被引用率约5%,而在印度,增加幅度是25%,而在巴西接近30%。

  "Our study shows that people who have access to journals in poor countries use them," says James A. Evans, the leading author of the research, published in Science last week (20 February). "If they weren't freely available they wouldn't use them with the same frequency, and they may not be able, as a result, to themselves publish in top journals."

  “我们的研究显示,在穷国,能获取论文的人们才使用这些论文。”该研究的第一作者James A. Evans上周(2月20日)在《科学》杂志发表的这篇论文中说。“如果它们没有免费公开,他们就不会以同样的频率使用这些论文,而且结果他们自己可能无法在顶级杂志上发表论文。”

  The researchers also found that the influence of open access dipped back to 12–16 per cent in very poor countries, such as Afghanistan, Uganda and Nepal.

  这组科学家还发现开放获取的影响力在阿富汗、乌干达和尼泊尔等非常贫穷的国家降到了12%-16%。

  Evans believes limited electronic access in these countries explains part of the figures, but it represents just one of the issues limiting their participation in science. "The low average income also means that it is hard to get an education and to become a scientist," he says.

  Evans认为这些国家网络条件所限解释了一部分的数字,但是它仅仅代表了限制这些国家参与科学的问题之一。“平均收入低也意味着很难获得教育并成为一名科学家。”他说。

  本文由科学与发展网络(SciDev.Net)独家提供。

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